In recent decades there has been a significant increase in snow melt on the Antarctic Peninsula and therefore more ‘wet snow’ containing liquid water. This wet snow is a microbial habitat In our new paper, we show that distance from the sea controls microbial abundance and diversity. Near the coast, rock debris and marine fauna fertilize the snow with nutrients allowing striking algal blooms of red and green to develop, which alter the absorption of visible light in the snowpack. This happens to a lesser extent further inland where there is less fertilization.
A particularly interesting finding is that the absorption of visible light by carotenoid pigments has greatest influence at the surface of the snow pack whereas chlorophyll is most influential beneath the surface. Higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxde were measured in interstitial air near the coast compared to inland and a close association was found between chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon. These observations suggest in situ production of carbon that can support more diverse microbial life, including species originating in nearby terrestrial and marine habitats.
These observations will help to predict microbial processes including carbon exchange between snow, atmosphere, ocean and soils occurring in the fastest-warming part of the Antarctic, where snowmelt has already doubled since the mid-twentieth century and is expected to double again by 2050.